Hayley is now 10 years old. My family adopted her when she was about 7 months old from a local animal rescue. She has a beautiful golden coat that is surprisingly soft.

She loves other dogs and people, and if she had a subcategory of her favorites to meet, it would be children. She’s extra gentle with young children and hasn’t ever jumped up on them – possibly because she can lick their faces without needing to jump!


Hayley has plenty of energy to expend on her hobbies: running outside, playing with toys, extracting food from puzzle toys, playing with cats and dogs, sniffing things on walks, but she definitely isn’t the highest level energy kind of dog. She’s much calmer than, for example, many herding breeds.

Hayley is also sound sensitive. There are sounds that scare her like thunder and construction noises, but she is highly attuned to things like the toaster popping, which predicts occasional treats of toast and butter, and she loves the “click” sound of clickers used with positive reinforcement training.



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Mocha is 7 years old, going on 8. She’s a mixed breed dog.

She’s very active. She loves to run, go on walks, sniff, watch people and things, play with toys, especially tug. She enjoys practicing positive reinforcement training for fun, and loves to have me chase her (she always wins this game due to her dog-speed). She’ll retrieve thrown baseballs but doesn’t care so much about relinquishing the ball, and will often turn it into a game of chase. IMG_20160418_152444

Mocha also loves to play basketball. She’ll dribble the ball with her front legs, jump up to get rebounds, play defense and pick up steals when people have possession of the ball. She is super competitive!  IMG_20170330_140355

After a good day of exercise she’ll snuggle up to watch TV or movies. She doesn’t often focus on the actual shows, but she does like sounds like whistling or similar sharp sounds.

My Story

I was born in Takoma Park, Maryland and lived in the Washington, DC area for nearly the first 12 years of my life. I have two brothers, one older, one younger. My older brother’s first pet was Kermit, the frog, and I ended up getting a frog I named Donatello, after one of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. We went on to have hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, cats, and a dog (Abby, a Cairn Terrier-Maltese) – we loved them all. 

My first dog, Abby

After about half a year of kindergarten, I became ill from chemicals used to clean the school building, so my parents decided to homeschool me and my brothers. This turned out excellently and I continued it all the way through middle school, attended a public project-based-learning high school, and as a senior decided to graduate as a homeschool student. 

Me as a kid

After Maryland my family lived in Minnesota. I stayed there through my early part of college, met some of my best friends, enjoyed the snow, and then transferred to NC State University in Raleigh, completed my degree, specifically designed to study animal behavior, including plenty of zoology, biology, and psychology classes. While attending my Introduction to Animal Behavior course, I knew I wanted to become a professional dog trainer.

Over the next several years I ended up working in a veterinary clinic, boarding kennel, dog daycare, completed a professional dog walking academy course, and found myself volunteering and eventually working at the SPCA of Wake County animal shelter. It was my favorite job I’d had up to that point. A big goal of animal shelters is to help pets by providing exceptional animal welfare standards and care, something that applies in the field of dog training as well. Dog training isn’t just about obtaining robotic obedience to commands, it’s about making your life easier with behaviors you can ask your dog to perform (like a down-stay instead of grabbing the sandwich off the table), but also about improving the quality of our dogs’ lives – making sure their exercise and mental enrichment needs are met, making sure they are healthy and treated with kindness.  

This path led me to enroll in The Academy for Dog Trainers, taught by Jean Donaldson, who is not just one of the best dog trainers in the world, but also a hero to me. She has consistently challenged the notion that we have to use fear/pain to motivate and train dogs, and provided demonstrative evidence through her own training and that of her school graduates that we can treat dogs humanely while training them to the highest levels possible. I couldn’t be prouder to be a graduate of her school.

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Photo with one of my puppy class graduates

In 2016, I opened North Carolina Dogs – Dog and Puppy Training in Wake, Durham, and Orange counties. I’ve worked with many brilliant families and their pet dogs. I’m thrilled with the current progress, and I’m in the process of expanding services to help more dogs in NC. 

Some of my other non-animal interests include baseball (my favorite sport), basketball, reading (thanks Mom, for getting me hooked on this as a kid), watching movies (especially horror films), and spending time with friends and family.

I’m looking forward to meeting more of you in the future. Feel free to let me know about you and your dogs in the comment section, and stay tuned for future blog posts.

Upset vs. Not Upset

The ability to read dog body language is so important to professional dog trainers. We need to determine whether dogs are upset or not upset to inform our diagnostics and training methods choice (operant conditioning or classical conditioning based). Dogs that are upset need to have the underlying reason for that emotional state addressed prior to focusing on obedience behaviors and results – much like a fearful child would need to be comforted before we would worry about teaching a subject like mathematics.

Upset dogs are fearful, uncomfortable, distressed, worried, or anxious. Not upset dogs are none of those things.

Here are examples of my dogs showing both their non-upset body language and their upset body language:

Notice individual body parts. When Hayley is nervous (picture on right) she has her ears pressed back and against her head, she is displaying “Whale eye” by showing extra white from her eyes widened in fright. Additionally, she is averting eye contact with the person taking the picture. She is stress panting rather heavily. Also something that cannot be observed in the photo is her body trembling in fear.

Contrast that body language with her happy photo (on the left). She is riding in the backseat of the car on the way to the park. Her ears are slightly back because she is listening to sounds outside the window, but not pressed firmly against her head. She has a nice, open mouth grin. Her eyes are opened a normal amount and no extra whites are showing. Her body posture is relaxed as she is sitting calmly.

Here she is again. See if you can identify individual body parts from the photos that give you an idea how she is feeling.

Mocha (on the right) is upset that a person is encroaching on her space. She is displaying resource guarding/ possessive behavior in regards to guarding her bed. Her ears are back, and her lips are pulled back revealing teeth in a defensive threat posture including showing the canines. Her eyes are hard as she is glaring obliquely at the person in her space.

Contrast that with her happy smile (picture on the left). She has nice, soft eyes, an open mouth with lips pulled back in a grin (not to reveal teeth as a threat). Her ears are at regular, normal resting position for her.

When we have an upset dog to train, we need to address the underlying reasons for our dogs to be upset. In both Hayley’s and Mocha’s cases above where they are upset, they would be candidates for a behavior modification protocol involving desensitization and counterconditioning – working gradually up to them forming positive associations with the things bothering or scaring them. We wouldn’t start by trying to teach obedience behaviors with operant conditioning (rewards for desirable behavior) in those situations. We would solve their reasons for feeling upset and focus on their well-being and helping them become happy and content.

Learn more about dog behavior and body language at:



Tuna Fudge

Professional dog trainers use plenty of treats for training new behaviors. One of our dog clients’ favorites is tuna fudge.


Tuna Fudge Recipe:

12 oz of tuna with the canned water (do not drain)

2 eggs

1 to 1.5 cups of flour

Mash tuna in a bowl or liquefy in a blender – add water as needed

Pour into a bowl – add flour

Spread into cookie sheet

Bake at 350 for 15 minutes – it will be the texture of putty

Cut into tiny squares (about the size of a pea). These can be frozen for storage

Note: you can always check with your veterinarian to get advice on what types of foods are okay for your dog to eat, and the amount that they can be served in a meal or training session.


Dog Training Methods Transparency

If you are looking for a dog trainer, you may be surprised to learn the dog training industry is not regulated. There are no formal education requirements, no required practical skills tests for dog trainers, or regulatory bodies to ensure dogs are treated humanely. However, good professional dog trainers exist in the world.

There are plenty of dog trainers that have studied scientific, evidence-based dog training, do not harm dogs, and get excellent training results. How can you tell who these trainers are?

One way is to ask your trainer three questions:

  1. What exactly will happen to my dog when she gets it right?
  2. What exactly will happen to her when she gets it wrong?
  3. Are there any less invasive alternatives to what you propose?


Here is what you should expect in response to those questions:

What exactly will happen to my dog when she gets it right?

Your dog will be rewarded with something she likes. This will reinforce the specific behavior your dog was doing at the time, which means your dog will do the behavior more frequently in the future. Rewards can be anything your dog wants including food/ treats, toys, the opportunity to sniff something or go play with another dog.

What exactly will happen to her when she gets it wrong?

Your dog will not receive a reward. This will set up a discrimination of correct responses are rewarded, and incorrect responses are not. After wrong responses your dog will get another chance to earn a reward for a correct response.

Responses made by trainers that you should avoid would include: your dog will be physically corrected with a leash, choke chain, prong collar, or shocked with a remote e-collar.

Also avoid trainers who are not transparent and talk about using energy, dominance theory, natural or balanced training and words that do not actually describe what they would physically do to your dog. Usually when these types of words are used, the trainers are employing methods that frighten or hurt your dog in order to motivate them to behave.

For example, a trainer might say they are going to motivate your dog with leadership, when what they actually do to your dog is shock him with a remote collar.

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Are there any less invasive alternatives to what you propose?

Not currently. Using rewards to train dogs results in positive side effects, such as dogs liking people and other dogs. To maintain behaviors, you will have to keep rewarding/ reinforcing them with something the dog likes. After your dog is an experienced learner you won’t have to reward every instance of correct behavior, but you will have to reward some. If you don’t, your dog will not have motivation to do the behavior.

If the trainer is using physically harsh methods, there is a less invasive alternative, and that is positive reinforcement/ reward-based dog training as is described in the first scenario. Side effects of aversive/ harsh training can include causing dogs to fear things or become aggressive. It can actually do harm to your dog and make his behavior worse. Trainers using these methods have to continue to apply techniques that hurt or scare dogs in order to maintain the behavior. If you want to avoid negative side effects, avoid this type of training.

It is your right and obligation to speak up for your dog. If you are uncomfortable with what a trainer is doing to your dog, you have the right to tell the trainer to stop.

Good professional dog trainers also continue their education in animal behavior science and participate in professional organizations.



The three questions were created by Jean Donaldson of The Academy for Dog Trainers.